• Alberto Testa University of West London


This paper presents an initial assessment of the results of a four-month research project studying Ultras in BiH. This research contributed to the Bosnia & Herzegovina Resilience Initiative (BHRI) Programme (implemented by the International Organization for Migration - United Nations, funded and closely coordinated with the U.S. Agency for International Development -USAID) aiming to reduce the threat of violent extremism in BiH and to counter extremist efforts to deepen or exploit communal tensions.

The full data and analysis and detailed recommendations will be released once the Funding Bodies release publicly the official report. The research focused on ‘risk’ factors and how these may govern ‘entry’ into extreme hard core football fans groups and prolong involvement in them. It then highlighted the nature of these groups and their activity and provided detailed recommendations for BiH policy makers, security agencies and football clubs who wish to understand and respond to this emergent threat for public security in BiH.

Author Biography

Alberto Testa, University of West London

Professor of Applied Criminology (University of West London);

Certified Forensic Interviewer (CFI-CISA, USA);

Registered Security Consultant (ASC-RISC)


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